بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the name of Allāh, the Supremely Beneficent, the Sublimely Magnanimous
نحمده و نصلي على رسوله الكريم
و على عبده المسيح الموعود
We send prayers and blessings upon His (swt) Noble Messenger (saw) and upon his (saw) Servant, the Promised Messiah (as)
An Islamic revolution is among us.
What do Muslims want?
– Coming of the Mahdī and Messiah
– The return of Prophetic Caliphate (khilāfah ‘alā minhājin nabūwwah)
– A centralized authority
– Real unity
– Complete self-funding
– An international, national, regional, and local organizational structure with an Amīr (governor) for every nation
– Majlis ash-Shūra (the consultative body of the Muslims)
– An international, national, regional, and local Muslim womens’ organization
– Missionary efforts to spread Islam across the globe
Interestingly, Ahmadi Muslims have all of the above things. Ahmadis are so well organized under the Nizām (order) made by Caliph II of the movement, that they do not rely on Western governments for funding (as some Muslim governments/leaders do) at all nor do they have an issue with building more infrastructure every year. This is an extension of the same Nizām created by Abu Bakr as-Siddīq, the first successor (Khalīfat ar-Rasūl) to the Prophet Muhammad (sa).
Ahmadi Muslims have a now 106-year old Caliphate, that still exists and has been completely bloodless in its formation.
“For this Khilāfah, neither is a violent uprising required, not are bullets needed to be fired. The reward of Khilāfah can only be established with God’s Grace, and has been established through His blessings; not through the efforts and schemes of people…
…The majority formed out of winning people’s hearts and that brings a message of love rather than compulsion, which does not act unjustly, rather spreads love; which always cooperates in matters of goodness – and as the Rightly Guided Khilafat exists to provide people their rights and establish justice – (hence) a government under such a Khilafat will safeguard the rights owed to people, rather than usurp them.” – Hadrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Caliph V
It unites Ahmadi Muslims all over the globe from every ethnicity and walk of life.
It is a direct fulfillment of the following prophecy of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ):
حدثنا سليمان بن داود الطيالسي حدثني داود بن إبراهيم الواسطي حدثني حبيب بن سالم عن النعمان بن بشير قال كنا قعودا في المسجد مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وكان بشير رجلا يكف حديثه فجاء أبو ثعلبة الخشني فقال يا بشير بن سعد أتحفظ حديث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الأمراء فقال حذيفة أنا أحفظ خطبته فجلس أبو ثعلبة فقال حذيفة قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تكون النبوة فيكم ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء الله أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكا عاضا فيكون ما شاء الله أن يكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكا جبرية فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ثم سكت
Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal narrates that:
“Sulayman ibn Dawūd at-Tayālisī has narrated a hadīth to us that ‘Dawūd bin Ibrāhīm al-Wāsitī narrated to me that from Habīb bin Sālim was heard from Nu’mān bin Bashīr that ‘we used to sit in the mosque with the Prophet (ﷺ).’ And Bashīr was a man who used to narrate many ahādīth. Then came Abū Tha’labah al-Khushnī who said ‘Oh Bashīr bin Sa’d, have you memorized the hadith of the Prophet (ﷺ) concerning leadership of the Muslims?’ So responded Hudhayfah that ‘I have memorized the entire khutbah (Friday Sermon) [in which this was mentioned].’ So then, Abū Tha’labah al-Khushnī sat down.
Then Hudhayfah said:
‘The Messenger of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon him said, ‘[my] nabūwwah (prophethood) shall remain among you as Allah wills it to remain, and then Allah shall cause it to end when He wills to end it. Then will remain Prophetic Caliphate (khilāfah ‘alā minhājin nabūwwah) and it will end. Then shall come despotic monarchy (mulkan ‘ādhan) and it will end. Then will appear coercive monarchy (mulkan jabrīyyah) and it will end. Then will appear Prophetic Caliphate (khilāfah ‘alā minhājin nabūwwah) again. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) remained silent.”
This narration of the Prophet (ﷺ) was fulfilled literally and correlates with six periods of Muslim rule in history, with the first Rāshidūn Caliphate correlating to the Prophetic Caliphate promised by the Prophet (ﷺ), the Ummayyad and ‘Abbasid caliphates correlating to the despotic monarchies who killed not only each other but members of the Ahl al-Bayt (family of the Prophet), the Seljuqs, Mongols, and regional dynasties afterwards representing the coercive monarchies, and finally the re-establishment of Prophetic Caliphate with the coming of the Imām Mahdī and the caliphate that succeeded him (Khilāfat al-Masīh).
“God has promised those of you who have attained to faith and do righteous deeds that, of a certainty, He will make them Caliphs on earth, even as He caused [some of] those who lived before them to become Caliphs; and that, of a certainty, He will firmly establish for them the religion which He has been pleased to bestow on them; and that, of a certainty, He will cause their erstwhile state of fear to be replaced by a sense of security [seeing that] they worship Me [alone], not ascribing divine powers to aught beside Me. But all who, after [having understood] this, choose to deny the truth – it is they, they who are truly iniquitous!”
So is this caliphate promised in the Qur’ān political in nature or spiritual? The word Khalīfah in Arabic means ‘successor’ and is connotative of a successor of the Prophet Muhammad (sa).
The Rightly Guided Caliphs Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān and ‘Alī (radiAllāhu ‘anhum) held both spiritual and temporal authority over the Muslim community. However it was their spiritual authority that makes theirs a caliphate. The temporal authority was simply a consequence of the political nature of the time. It is not essential for caliphate.
According to Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimuhu Allah), two types of Caliphate exist, namely, (1) al-Khilāfah al-Khāsah (Special, i.e., Rightly Guided), and (2) al-Khilāfah al-‘Āmah (general, i.e., mulk / kingship). This is in line with the hadīth of the Prophet (sa) quoted in Musnad Ahmad above, which makes a prophecy of the different types of Caliphate in his Ummah.
Hadrat Shah Wali Allah al-Dihlawī (rahimuhu Allāh) also makes the same distinction between the two types of Caliphate, in his book “Izālat al-Khafā’ ‘an Khilāfat al-Khulafā’” where he says, as follows:
“The Will of God which descends from above the seventh heaven to spread the prophetic guidance among the people, to protect the prophetic light and make it dominant, and to effect the execution of the promises made to the Prophet, creates an urge in the heart of the khalīfah. There may be thousands whose hearts are filled by divine inspiration, with the urge to help the Religion of the prophet, but this khalīfah is among them (the Muslims) as the heart is among organs of the body. First of all, the divine inspiration enters the heart of the khalīfah and then from there it reaches the hearts of other persons. This inspiration enters the heart of the khalīfah through the agency of the Prophet and urges from inside, and unless it urges from inside no one can become special khilāfah.’’
Further discussing this subject, and the precise nature of the Khilāfah al-Khāsah, Ibn ‘Abd al-Bar states in his book “al-Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab”:
“The prophets are created with the purest and noblest souls and it is on account of this quality that they become the recipients of divine revelation and are given the charge of guiding mankind. Only God knows as to who among them posses this pure and refined nature, for the Qur’ān says, ‘Allah knows the soul to which he assigns the commission of prophecy’.
Similarly, in the ummah also there are some people whose soul is created almost pure and noble as that of the Prophets, and these are the people who become the real successors of the prophet. They get the spiritual illumination from the Prophet that others cannot get. And whatever knowledge they receive from him they believe in as if they have seen its truth and received its essence independently and the prophet has only confirmed it by giving its details. So the special Khalīfah means that just as the Khalīfah is the head of the Muslims in the temporal sense he is also their head in the spiritual sense.
The real successor of the prophet is like a pipe. When someone plays on a pipe and produces a sweet melody in the atmosphere this performance is attributed not to the pipe but to the piper. Similarly God has promised to do many things through the Prophet but he called him back before all of them were realized. The remaining things were then performed by his successors, and this performance will be attributed to the Prophet rather than these people, because they are, like the pipe, his mere organs. Thus the special Khalīfah is one who compliments the works of the Prophets which have been explicitly and implicitly mentioned in the Qur’ān and Hadīth.
The Khilāfah is an office of great responsibility. But satisfaction of the uncontrollable physical desires and devilish tendency are ingrained in the very instinct and blood of man. Therefore, if the Khalīfah is elected by the people, the possibility is there that he may do tyranny and injustice. Hence there must be some factor to remove this possibility, so that normally it might be impossible for the khalīfah to be negligent or tyrannical in performing his duties. This fear, however, cannot be removed except by the text (nass) of the Book or the Sunnah. So the special Khalīfah is one whose knowledge and sense of equity are guaranteed by God and His Prophet.”
In addition to these writings of the classical scholars of Islam, a modern day scholar from the Sunni school, named Habīb ‘Umar bin Hafīz of Hadhramawt, Yemen, explained the reality of true Caliphate on July 30th, 2013.
He says, and I quote:
“There are two types of khilāfah. The first is the outward khilāfah which relates to political power, which is not noble and honourable in itself. Anyone may attain political power, whether they be pious or corrupt, whether they be a believer or a disbeliever, whether they be a Prophet or a wretched person…
…The second type is the khilāfah of prophet-hood, which is a noble and lofty thing. It relates to understanding the speech of Allah, to our connection with Him, to attaining a pure heart and attaining His pleasure. It is the preserve of the Prophets and their followers, the pious people in every time and place. No disbeliever or corrupt person may come close to it, nor someone with arrogance or pride in their heart…This is the khilāfah we should seek. Many Muslims have no desire to attain it, although it is the greatest form of khilāfah…
…Sayyidunā `Alī (ra) combined the inward and the outward khilāfah, and after him Sayyidunā al-Ḥasan (ra), until he relinquished power. At this point the inward khilāfah, which cannot be affected by evil, became separated from the outward khilāfah, which is subject to oppression and misguidance…
…Look at the life of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, the master of the people of khilāfah, and the Imām (leader) of all people. For forty years before receiving revelation he was not in a position of leadership or power. He was, however, presiding over the inward khilāfah and was known as al-Amīn, ‘the Trustworthy One.’ People trusted him and consulted him in their affairs. After receiving revelation he spent thirteen years in Makkah, during which time power was in the hands of people like Abū Jahl. Outwardly he was under their rule but inwardly he was the greatest khalīfah of Allah on the earth. In al-Madīnah he was confronted by hostility from the Jews, the Hypocrites and the polytheists. It was only after eight years that he finally entered Makkah at the age of sixty-one. He only ruled over Makkah for two years before his death. This did not, however, detract from his khilāfah. He is the greatest khalīfah and every other khalīfah from the time of Ādam to `Īsā will be under his banner…
…How can people venerate political power when this is the example of the Master of the Prophets ﷺ?…
…The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
“You will greedily seek positions of leadership and it will be a cause of regret on the Day of Judgement.” (Narrated by al-Bukhārī)
…Sayyidunā `Umar would say: “I wish to leave power with the bare minimum – with nothing for me or against me.” He was not proud of his position. He also said: “It is enough that one descendant of al-Khaṭṭāb be asked about his position. Do not make `Abdullāh bin `Umar the Khalīfah after me.” This was his understanding of the outer khilāfah and the responsibility it entails…
…there will be a period in which people heart’s and states with Allah are rectified which prepares the way for the coming of al-Mahdī. The foundation of his rule will be pure hearts. Without the presence of these hearts he will not be able to achieve anything…
…It is possible for any individual to reach the highest of ranks whatever situation they are in and whatever government they are under. Why miss out on these opportunities? We say we want to rule, we want power. Let your Lord rule.”
Mu’awiyah II (or Mu’āwiya ibn Yazīd), the son of the oppressive ruler Yazīd ibn Mu’āwiya who caused the martyrdom of the Prophet’s (sa) grandson Imām Hussayn, acceded to the throne after the death of his father. However it is interesting to note that after taking the bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) of the people, he did not come out of his house for forty days. When he came out, he rose to the pulpit and said he had only accepted their bay’ah because he did not want dissension among them and had been meditating in his home on who is more entitled than him to take the bay’ah of the people as the Caliph.
And he said:
“O people listen to it carefully that I am not fit for this post. I also want to tell you that my father and grandfather were also not entitled tothis post. My father was inferior to Hussayn, and his father from the father of Hassan and Hussayn. Hadrat Alī (ra) at his time was more entitled for Khilāfat than my grandfather, and after this Hassan and Hussayn (radiAllāhu ‘anhumā) were more entitled than my father. Therefore, I retire from this chiefdom, and you can take the bay’ah of the person of your choice.”
This shows that at the time of Imām ‘Alī (ra), even though the self-appointed political Caliph of the Muslims was Mu’āwiyya, the true spiritual caliph was ‘Alī (ra). And during the political caliphate of the oppressor Yazīd, the true spiritual caliph was Imām Hussayn. This is a testimony of Yazīd’s son himself.
In this regard, in accordance with the above extracts, the Khilāfat-e-Ahmadīyyah refers to the successorship established by divine command and fulfillment of prophecy after Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), who was the Imām Mahdī, Promised Messiah, and a prophet by zill (reflection) and burūz (shadow) of the Prophet Muhammad (sa). This Caliphate represents the true heirs to the Prophet Muhammad (sa) today.
كَزَرۡعٍ أَخۡرَجَ شَطۡـَٔهُ ۥ فَـَٔازَرَهُ ۥ فَٱسۡتَغۡلَظَ فَٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِۦ يُعۡجِبُ ٱلزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِہِمُ ٱلۡكُفَّارَۗ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ مِنۡہُم مَّغۡفِرَةً۬ وَأَجۡرًا عَظِيمَۢا
“[Muhammad’s (sa) Ummah] is like as seed that sprouts, then strengthens it, so it becomes strong and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the unbelievers on account of them; Allah has promised those among them who believe and do good, forgiveness and a great reward.”
“This verse implies that the revolution to take place in the days of the Promised Messiah would fall into four stages:
1.) Sprouting of the Seed:
The first stage has been described as akhraja shat’ahu, like the first shoots of the seed coming out of the earth i.e. the principles of the revolution would be stated, very frail and tender in growth, unlike the condition of Islam in its first stage which God has described as أَتَىٰٓ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ (Qur’ān 16:1) or as أَتَى ٱللَّهُ بُنۡيَـٰنَهُم (Qur’ān 16:26) in contrast to its rapid, almost sudden growth during the phase of its inception in the days of the Holy Prophet (sa), there being in its growth at this latter stage of revival and regeneration a marked measure of slowness, a graded process, a definite order and sequence. Faith at first would be like a seed sown in the hearts. Then it would germinate, turning into a tender verdure.
2.) Strengthening of the Plant:
The next stage in its process and growth has been described as ʿāzarah, when the plant will become strong…In the days of the Promised Messiah the Movement passed through its first stage, when it was a tender new verdure shooting out of the earth. But now [at the time of Caliph II], the time has come when the second stage should begin, so that the task should be accomplished under the eyes of those disciples of the Promised Messiah who directly partook in the clear vision of the founder of the movement.
3.) Growing of the Tree:
The third stage would be when it fulfills the prophecy contained in the word istaghlaza, i.e. the weak plant would develop a thick trunk – when the movement which had appeared very insignificant, would spread all over the world, winning adherents everywhere, and penetrating to every nook and corner of the earth.
4.) Delighting the Sowers
The fourth stage will be reached when the Movement shall present a spectacle of fastawā ‘alā sūqihī, i.e. Islamic states would come into being, and even those principles which pertain to the Islamic conception of a state shall come into practical operation, giving one civilization and one culture to all mankind. The expression fastawā ‘alā sūqihī used here is very similar to what is said in the Holy Qur’ān in another place in regard to God’s istiwā (settling) on His ‘arsh (throne). The Islamic civilization, to be established through Ahmadiyyat would be so grand and glorious that it would make other nations open their eyes with wonder…Allah says that when the Islamic way of life came to be established through Ahmadiyyat, and when Islamic states came to dominate the earth, other nations would be surprised and begin to feel that the new world order could not be resisted any longer. These would be people with a certain amount of fairness and a certain nobility of mind. But there would be others in regard to whom the verse says لِيَغِيظَ بِہِمُ ٱلۡكُفَّارَ “So as to exasperate the unbelievers with it”, which means that there would be an extreme and fanatical type of opponents, who would, so to say, die a death in despair.” – Hadrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad, Caliph II
In regards to the last stage, Dr. Abdus Salam – the first Muslim Nobel Laureate in science, who was also a devout Ahmadi Muslim – said in one of his articles on Islamic History, that “Islam shall be revived both spiritually and politically through Ahmadiyyat.”
However, it is also correct that none of our Caliphs has any political aims or aspirations, as the current caliph repeatedly says.
“Khilāfat has no relation to government or politics. When Ahmadiyyat spreads far and wide the Khilāfat will play no role in government and will never interfere with matters of State. We have no political ambitions or desires. We believe entirely in a separation of religion and matters of State.” – Hadrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Caliph V
This group shall re-establish the ascendancy of Islām in the world both spiritually and politically, but via a peaceful jihād of the pen instead of the misguided notions of jihād undertaken by Islamists of today such as ISIS or those in the eschatological dreams of mainstream Muslims of the coming of Jesus and the Imām Mahdī. This was the view of the holy founder of the community, Hadrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) – who in our estimation is the true Promised Messiah and Imām Mahdī – who said:
“Three centuries from now shall not have passed when those who await the coming of Jesus son of Mary, whether they be Muslims or Christians, shall relinquish altogether this conception. Then shall prevail only one religion over the whole world and there shall be only one religious Leader. I came only to sow the seed which has been planted by my hand. It shall now grow and flourish and there is none who can hinder its growth.”
So what does this paradoxical state of affairs mean? It means that when the majority of the world will be Ahmadi Muslim, 300 years after 1905 as per the prediction of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), then obviously Ahmadis will assemble themselves into an Islamic civilization. This will happen as an entirely peaceful and natural process, and no blood will be shed for this aim.
As Hadrat Mirza Nasir Ahmad, Caliph III said “we will win the hearts“:
In contemporary times, we are now under the auspices of Hadrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalīfat al-Masīh V, entering the third stage of the revolution of Islam as outlined in the Qur’ān, that of Islam being spread to the far corners of the earth.
This is happening through the Tehrīk-e-Jadīd scheme, established by Caliph II of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, which literally means ‘New World Order of Islam’. Thousands of missionaries are trained by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, and spread Islam to the far corners of the globe.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is now spread to 206 nations of the earth, with tens of millions of members.
“I cannot give you the overall figure of the whole world. In some places, the organisational set up is not very well established, so they cannot have the figures, but we are in millions all across the world.” – Hadrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, current Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
A study published by the international research group called Pew Forum in 2012 showed that in just thirteen African countries there exists a growing population of almost 8 million Ahmadi Muslims.
Another independent study was from a book which was published by Oxford University, called World Christian Encyclopedia. The book was a second edition and the first had been published in 1981. The second edition, which is the one we looked at had been published in 2001 and had conducted perhaps the most reliable study in history into the religious beliefs of the worldwide population. Statistics had been taken and assembled by experts during the period between 1990 and 2000. The results showed that the Ahmadiyya Sect is the fastest growing major sect of the fastest growing religion in the world, Islam.
In addition to these, “The World’s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography”, First Edition (2013) by Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim has the following under “Muslims”:
“Over the twentieth century, most Muslims (86%) have considered themselves Sunni in tradition. The next largest group is the Shi’a, whose percentage remained the same from 1910 to 2010 at 12.9%. Gains were made by schismatic groups, especially the Ahmadiyya, a fast-growing movement founded in India, who now claim over 10 million followers worldwide.”
In the past year alone (2013), 540,782 people joined the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
In addition to all this, as of 2009, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has built over 15,055 mosques, 510 schools, and over 40 hospitals in the world, and these numbers continue to grow.
Ahmadiyya created schools are secular ones that offer education to everyone irrespective of religion, and Ahmadiyya hospitals offer medical service to all people irrespective of faith often free of charge.
In addition, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has translated the Qur’ān into over 118 languages, often being the first ever to do so, being the largest Muslim community under a single leader in the world (larger in fact than the Ismaili community as well) as well as the Muslim group with the most number of translations of the Qur’ān completed.
So the revolution of Islam is happening in front of our eyes. As Muslims, we have to decide whether we want to continue with our community of divided Muslims – both ideologically and socially – or join the fold of the revolution of Islam, Ahmadiyya, the return of the Ahmadi qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (whose name was also Ahmad) to the world!
1 Friday Sermon, 25th Feb. 2011
2 Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Awwal Musnad al-Kūfiyyīn, Vol. 4, #273
3 Qur’ān 24:55
4 ‘Umar, Habib. On the Concept of Khilafah and the Reality of Political Power
5 Ahmad, Hadrat Mirza Bashiruddin. Khilafat-e-Rashida, pg. 193-194. Taken from al-Kāmil fī at-Tārīkh, Vol. 4, p. 130, by Ibn al-Athīr.
6 Qur’ān 48:29
7 Ahmad, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood. Inqilāb-e-Haqīqī (“Real Revolution”)
8 Salam, Professor Dr. Abdus. “History of Islam”. Review of Religions August 2003, pg. 16.
9 True Khilafat compatible with Democracy – Head of Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at
10 Ahmad, Hadrat Mirza Ghulam. Tadhkirat al-Shahādatayn (Narrative of Two Martyrdoms
11 Ahmad, Hadrat Mirza Masroor. Peace Conference 2013, meeting with English press.
12 Numbers of Ahmadi Muslims in African Countries
13 Ahmadiyya Fastest Growing Sect of Islam The Ahmadiyya Movement has been the fastest growing sect according the World Christian Encyclopedia for a number of decades. For this, see earlier editions. The 2001 edition places the growth rate at 3.25%, which is the highest of all Islamic sects and schools of thought. See: David B. Barrett, George Thomas Kurian,Todd M. Johnson, ed. (February 15, 2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press USA.
14 Johnson, Todd M. and J., Brian. “The World’s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography”, First Edition (2013), pg. 23.
15 International Bay’ah – Number of Converts
16 Ahmadiyya Mosques Around the World: A Pictorial Presentation. Khilafat Centenary Edition; The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. 2008. p. 14.
17 Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam, pg. 315